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Chiropractic Journal of Australia : CJA December 2013
Chiropractic Journal of Australia Volume 43 Number 4 December 2013 149 THE YEAR THAT WAS 1913 PETERS excluded,” as the offcial program stated. The march and the attention it attracted were important in advancing women's suffrage in the United States. The parade was led by lawyer Inez Milholland and included ten bands, five mounted brigades, 26 foats, and around 8000 marchers including many notables such as Helen Keller, who was scheduled to speak at Constitution Hall after the march. After a good beginning, the marchers encountered crowds, mostly male, on the street that should have been cleared for the parade. They were jeered and harassed while attempting to squeeze by the scoffng crowds, and the police were sometimes of little help, or even participated in the harassment. Over 200 people were treated for injuries at local hospitals. Despite all this, most of the marchers fnished the parade and viewed an allegorical tableau presented near the Treasury Building. The mistreatment of the marchers by the crowd and the police caused a great furor. Journalist Nellie Bly, who had participated in the march, headlined her article "Suffragists are Men's Superiors". Senate hearings, held by a subcommittee of the Committee on the District of Columbia, started on March 6, only three days after the march, and lasted until March 17, with the result that the District's superintendent of police was replaced.50 The Prisoners (Temporary Discharge for Ill Health) Act 1913 (also known as the "Cat and Mouse Act") was an Act of Parliament passed in Britain under Herbert Henry Asquith's Liberal government in 1913. It made legal the hunger strikes that Suffragettes were undertaking at the time and stated that they would be released from prison as soon as they became ill.51 Women in Illinois were given the vote in most elections -- the frst state east of the Mississippi to pass a woman suffrage law.52 The frst Norwegian woman casts her vote in the 1910 municipal election. Middle class women could vote for the frst time in 1907 (i.e., women coming from families with a certain level of prosperity). Women in general were allowed to vote in local elections from 1910 on, and in 1913 a motion on general suffrage for women was carried unanimously in the Norwegian parliament (Stortinget).53 (UK) Government's Male Suffrage Bill was introduced. However, the Speaker of the House of Commons ruled that a Male Suffrage Bill could not also give votes to women. The amendment to give votes to women was withdrawn. Militant suffragette action became even more intense, including arson attacks and the destruction of the London to Glasgow telephone line.54 On 26 July 1913 50,000 women took part in a pilgrimage in Hyde Park, London organised by the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies.42 TECHNOLOGY The Swedish American engineer Gideon Sundback patented the all-purpose Zipper.30 On 13 August 1913 stainless steel was invented by Harry Brearley in Sheffield (concurrent with the invention of stainless steel in the United States by Elwood Haynes).42 TRANSPORTATION American engineer Frederick Kolster developed a radio- compass system for ships in the North Atlantic. It used transmitters on the New Jersey coast.30 MISCELLANY The frst home refrigerator, the Domlre, went on sale in Chicago. It was not very successful but was soon followed by others in the American market.30 In 1913 the Deutsches Stadion in Berlin was dedicated with the release of 10,000 pigeons, in front of an audience of 60,000 people. It had been constructed especially for the 1916 Summer Olympics, which were cancelled as a result of World War I.20 On August 23 1913 the statue of The Little Mermaid sculpted by Edward Eriksen was unveiled in Copenhagen.20 In September 1913, the frst industrial-scale ammonia production plant came on stream at BASF in Ludwigshafen. The Haber-Bosch process for ammonia synthesis, which was frst successfully operated here in September 1913, was the decisive step into the age of mineral fertilizers. This innovation became a key driver in the development of the industrialized society and is still securing the nutrition of billions of people today.55 On 31 October1913 the Lincoln Highway, the first automobile road across the United States, was dedicated.20 On 13 November 1913 the 1st modern elastic brassiere was patented by Mary Phelps Jacob.56 Al Capone was born in Brooklyn, New York, on January 17, 1899, to Neapolitan immigrants Gabriel and Teresa Caponi. Originally named Alphonse Caponi, his name was Americanized to “Al Capone.” In 1904, at the age of fve, young Alphonse started his school career at Public School 7 in Brooklyn. School was tough for Capone. The teachers were not tolerant of immigrant children and often used physical force as a means of discipline. Capone always had a problem with authority, and by the time he entered sixth grade, his grades began to drop drastically. At 14, in 1913, Capone started a fst fght with a teacher, was expelled, and never returned to school again. Shortly after he was expelled, his father moved the family to 21 Garfeld Place, in the neighborhood that would infuence the direction of Capone’s life and ultimately, his future. Capone joined two local street gangs, the Brooklyn Rippers and the Forty Thieves Juniors. Among the members were Johnny Torrio and Lucky Luciano.57 One of Houdini's most popular publicity stunts was to have himself strapped into a regulation straitjacket and suspended by his ankles from a tall building or crane. Houdini would then make his escape in full view of the assembled crowd. In many cases, Houdini would draw thousands of onlookers who would choke the street and bring city traffc to a halt. Houdini would sometimes ensure press coverage by performing the escape from the offce building of a local newspaper. In New York City, Houdini performed the suspended straitjacket
CJA September 2013