by clicking the arrows at the side of the page, or by using the toolbar.
by clicking anywhere on the page.
by dragging the page around when zoomed in.
by clicking anywhere on the page when zoomed in.
web sites or send emails by clicking on hyperlinks.
Email this page to a friend
Search this issue
Index - jump to page or section
Archive - view past issues
Chiropractic Journal of Australia : CJA December 2013
Chiropractic Journal of Australia Volume 43 Number 4 December 2013 147 THE YEAR THAT WAS 1913 PETERS within the Eugenics Society, apart from Adolf Hitler in Germany, was Dr Barnado. The idea was to sterilise and deter all people in society deemed to be socially unacceptable, including those who were drinkers, those with learning disability and people who were not prudent. They were to be institutionalised and segregated from mainstream society. It was a very common thought before, during and after the frst World War that human stock should be purifed. It was no real wonder, therefore, that Hitler managed to get away with all he did as the rest of the world turned a blind eye to his 'institutionalisation' of what he considered poor human stock: Jews, Gypsies, the sick, people with learning disability and mental health issues. Dr Barnado instigated and actively encouraged, as a result to the Mental Defciency Act 1913 for which he and the Eugenics Society campaigned, small homes and institutions for parents to hand in their children. Many of the children were sterilised so they would not breed more unprudent human stock for generations to come. These were the foundations to the famous Dr Barnado homes that are all familiar within the UK. Under the Mental Defciency Act 1913, many single mothers were forced to hand over their babies because it was socially unacceptable to keep them. It wasn’t really until the flm ‘Cathy Come Home’ that there was more social empathy toward these people. This was televised in 1966, so the effect of the1913 Act was pretty much thought of as acceptable and a social norm. Institutionalisation of poor human stock was well integrated into the society of the Western world.36 In 1910, British and Afrikaner settlers agreed to unite the four previously independent states of Natal, Cape, Orange Free State, and the South African Republic (Transvaal) into the Union of South Africa. Racial discrimination became institutionalized at a national level. Legislation enacted by the all-white Parliament in 1913 and 1936 prohibited African land ownership in 86 percent of the country. "Native reserves" for Africans were set up in the remaining 14 percent of the land, although Africans comprised approximately three-fourths of the total population. Other restrictions limited where Africans could live and work in areas outside their "reserves." 37 MANUFACTURING Henry Ford introduced the frst true assembly line, where cars were carried along a conveyer belt at a speed slow enough for workers to assemble them but fast enough to reduce the assembly time from 12.5 to 1.5 hours.30 The Wilson Sporting Goods Company traces its roots to the Schwarzchild & Sulzberger company (later changed to Sulzberger & Son’s) based in New York City that operated meat packing plants in New York, Chicago and Kansas City. Sulzberger founded the Ashland Manufacturing Company in 1913 to use animal by-products from its slaughterhouses. It started out making tennis racket strings, violin strings, and surgical sutures but soon expanded into baseball shoes and tennis racquets.38 William Stanley Jr. invented the all-steel vacuum bottle and revolutionised the industry by proving steel can be used in place of glass to insulate.39 Aston Martin Lagonda Limited is a British manufacturer of luxury sports cars. It was founded in 1913 by Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford.40 Morris Motors Limited of the United Kingdom, produced the Morris Oxford, a "bullnose" motor car, in 1913. 41 On 28 March 1913 The Morris Oxford 2-seater car went on sale.42 In 1913, brothers Frederick and August Duesenberg founded Duesenberg Automobile & Motors Company, Inc. on 915 Grand Avenue in Des Moines, Iowa, to build sports cars.43 Schneider Kreuznach is the abbreviated name of the company Jos. Schneider Optische Werke GmbH, which is sometimes also simply referred to as Schneider. Famous as manufacturers of top industrial and photographic optics, the company was founded on 18 January 1913 by Joseph Schneider as Optische Anstalt Jos. Schneider & Co. at Bad Kreuznach in Germany.44 MEDICAL SCIENCE Bela Schick introduced the Schick test for diphtheria.30 Emil von Behring introduced a toxin-antitoxin mixture for immunizing children against diphtheria.30 German surgeon Albert Salomon developed mammography for diagnosing breast cancer.30 Nikolay Anichkov demonstrated the signifcance and role of cholesterol in atherosclerosis pathogenesis.30 Albert Schweitzer set up the Albert Schweitzer Hospital at Lambaréné in French Equatorial Africa.30 SCIENCE Elmer Verner McCollum and his assistant Marguerite Davis identifed a fat-soluble vitamin later called vitamin A to distinguish it from the water-soluble vitamin discovered by Christiaan Eijkman termed vitamin B.30 Archibald Vivian Hill discovered that muscle cells respire, or use oxygen, after a contraction is fnished, not while the contraction is taking place.30 Ramón y Cajal developed a stain for distinguishing the fne structure of nervous tissue, and used it to prove the presence of astrocytes (star-shaped nerve cells) in the brain.30 High-school teacher Johann Regan ingeniously used the newly available telephone to determine if it is true that a male cricket's call is a mating signal to a female cricket. When a male cricket chirped over the telephone, the female immediately headed for the earpiece, confirming the hypothesis.30 Irving Langmuir, while working for General Electric, improved the tungsten lamp by flling the bulb with an inert gas so that atoms of tungsten will evaporate more slowly from the flament. He also developed the coiled tungsten flament.30 Daniel J O’Connor and Herbert A Faber fled for a United States patent on the composite plastic laminate Formica.48
CJA September 2013