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Chiropractic Journal of Australia : CJA December 2013
146 Chiropractic Journal of Australia Volume 43 Number 4 December 2013 naval aviation commenced with the foundation of a fying school.27 The Chilean Army established a Military Aviation School at Lo Espejo (now El Bosque).27 The Republic of China obtained twelve military aircraft from France.27 Royal Netherlands Army formed its Aviation Division (Luchtvaart Afdeling).27 The International Federation of Aeronautics announced that by the end of 1912, 2,490 pilots had been awarded Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) licenses. 966 were awarded in France, 382 in Britain, 345 in Germany, 193 in the USA, 58 in Belgium, 27 in Switzerland and 1 in Egypt.26 On 13 January 1913 the frst regular aerial cargo service was established in the USA by Harry M. Jones as he few baked beans from Boston to New York in a Wright B.26. Russian pilot N. de Sackoff became the frst pilot shot down in combat when his biplane was hit by ground fre following a bombing run on the walls of Fort Bezhani during the First Balkan War. Flying for Greece, he came down near Preveza, on the coast north of the Aegean island of Levkas, secured local Greek assistance, repaired his airplane, and few back to base.27 Austro-Hungarian Navy battleships transported fying boats from Pola to the Gulf of Cattaro as part of an international peacekeeping force sent to the region toward the end of the First Balkan War.27 On 13 May 1913 Sikorsky Russky Vityaz, the world’s frst four-engined aircraft made its maiden fight. 27 The Russky Vitiaz was the frst aeroplane ftted with a lavatory. The aircraft was a passenger transport, designed by Igor Sikorski and test fown on this date. This 4-engined precursor to the heavy bomber was piloted by Igor Sikorsky at St Petersburg and had a wingspan of 28 metres (92 feet).26 A seaplane carrier participated in the Royal Navy's annual manoeuvres for the frst time, as HMS Hermes embarked two seaplanes, the Short Folder S.64 biplane and a Caudron G.3 amphibian. The Short aircraft was the frst with folding wings to be used aboard a ship. The manoeuvres, which concluded on October 6, demonstrated both the feasibility of extended operations by aircraft at sea and the value of folding wings.27 Imperial Russian Army pilot Pyotr Nesterov became the frst person to loop an airplane, fying a Nieuport IV monoplane over Syretzk Aerodrome near Kiev, Russia.27 On 21 June 1913 American Miss Georgia 'Tiny' Broadwick was the frst woman to descend from an aeroplane by parachute when Glenn L Martin few her up to 2,000 feet above Griffth Park in Los Angeles.26 The world’s frst aerial combat took place in Mexico when 2 American mercenary pilots, Dean Ivan Lamb, fying for Pancho Villa, and Philip Rader, fying for President Huerta, exchanged pistol shots in mid-air, neither was hit.26 The frst death involving an airplane in Canada was at Victoria, BC, on 6 August 1913, when American barnstormer John M. Bryant was killed in the crash of his Curtiss seaplane.28 On 9 September the first fatalities aboard a German airship occurred when the Imperial German Navy dirigible L-1 was forced down into the North Sea off Heligoland during a thunderstorm, killing 16 of the 22 men on board. Among the dead was the commanding offcer of the Naval Airship Division, Kapitänleutnant Matzing. It was the frst time more than 10 people were killed in an aircrash.27 "The value of the Zeppelin airship as instruments of war has not been affected by the loss of the L-1 off Heligoland." In this laconic conclusion of the offcial report of the disaster which robbed Germany of the new naval air scout was contained the dictum of the Kaiser's war experts that the Zeppelin airships emerge from Tuesday night's crowning catastrophe with their effectiveness unshattered.29 On 17 October the Imperial German Navy Zeppelin L-2 burned in mid-air near Johannisthal Air Field in Germany and crashed, killing all 28 on board.27 COMMUNICATION Edouard Belin invented a portable facsimile machine (fax) which he called the Belinograph but which journalists of the time knew as the Belino. Capable of using ordinary telephone lines, the Belino quickly replaced the fax machine of Arthur Korn, which required its own electric lines.30 Alexander Meissner invented a radio transmitter based on vacuum tubes.30 EDUCATION During 1913 more than 130 educational institutions were founded world-wide, among them the following schools in Australia: Ararat District High School in Victoria which now is Ararat College.31 Frensham School, an independent, non-denominational, secondary, day and boarding school for girls, located at Mittagong, south of Sydney, in the Southern Highlands of New South Wales.32 Launceston State High School (Tasmania) evolved into Launceston Matriculation College, Launceston Community College and now Launceston College.33 Swinburne Senior Secondary College, a co-educational government college focusing on the learning needs, values and attitudes of young adults.34 Trinity Grammar School , an independent, Anglican, day and boarding school for boys in Sydney, Australia. The main campus is in Summer Hill, with preparatory schools in Strathfeld and Lewisham. The school also operates a rural outdoor education campus known as Pine Bluff, near Bigga, New South Wales.35 HUMAN RIGHTS The Mental Deficiency Act 1913 came into force because of frm beliefs in Eugenics. This was formulated from Charles Darwin's 'Origin of Species' which looked at genetic inheritance. The Eugenics Society, which was committed to improving human stock and eradicating what society considered as poor human traits, was fundamental in implementing this eradication. One of the forefront men THE YEAR THAT WAS 1913 PETERS
CJA September 2013