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Chiropractic Journal of Australia : CJA December 2013
144 Chiropractic Journal of Australia Volume 43 Number 4 December 2013 the Volturno. The ship had 657 people on board and 136 were killed when the lifeboats capsized in very heavy seas. Most of the people on board were emigrants from Eastern Europe and Russia. SOS signals brought ten ships to the rescue, but the heavy seas made rescue impossible. The following morning an oil ship arrived with a supply of lubricating oil which was commonly used to calm treacherous waters. Within ten minutes ffty tons of oil were pumped into the ocean, instantly calming the waters. Within a few hours all survivors were taken to the various rescue ships.17 Great Lakes Storm of 1913 (United States) -- A cyclonic blizzard (sometimes referred to as an inland hurricane) on the Great Lakes occurred between 7 and 10 November 1913. In total 12 ships were sunk with a combined crew loss of 255. An additional seven ships were damaged beyond repair, 19 more ships that had been stranded were later salvaged The following list includes ships that sank during the storm, killing their entire crews. It does not include the three victims from the freighter William Nottingham, who volunteered to leave the ship on a lifeboat in search of assistance. While the boat was being lowered into the water, a breaking wave smashed it into the side of the ship. The men disappeared into the near-freezing waters below. The following shipwreck casualties have been documented: • Lake Superior • Leafeld: 18 victims • Henry B. Smith: 25 victims • Lake Michigan • Plymouth (barge): 7 victims • Lake Huron • Argus: 28 victims • James Carruthers: 22 victims • Hydrus: 25 victims • John A. McGean: 28 victims • Charles S. Price: 28 victims • Regina: 20 victims • Isaac M. Scott: 28 victims • Wexford: 20 victims • Lake Erie • Lightship LV 82, Buffalo: 6 victims Of the twelve ships that sank in the storm, fve have never been found: Henry B. Smith, Leafeld, James Carruthers, Plymouth, and the Hydrus. The most recent discovery was that of Wexford in the summer of 2000.18 James T. Staples, offcially registered as the Jas. T. Staples and also known as the Big Jim, was a Tombigbee River sternwheel steamboat that ran a route between Mobile and Demopolis, Alabama during the early 20th century. She was destroyed on 10 January 1913 in an explosion while docked roughly six miles north of the current Coffeeville Lock and Dam. It was the last major maritime disaster involving a steamboat in Tombigbee River history. The disaster saw the ship enter southwestern Alabama folklore, with tales that its sinking had been foretold by supernatural occurrences. Twenty-six people were killed and twenty-one injured in the disaster. The survivors were rescued by the crew of the John Quill, another large sternwheeler plying the same circuit. The explosion was variously blamed on human error and sabotage. Neither was ever proven. The hull, engines, and two boilers were later salvaged from the river and used to build the Peerless, launched in 1914.19 The British steamship Calvadas disappeared in the Marmara Sea with 200 hands on board.20 On 7 March 1913 three hundred tons of dynamite being loaded in the British tramp steamer Alum Chine in the lower harbour, off Fort Carroll, near Baltimore, exploded about 10:30 o'clock this morning, instantly killing from 40 to 50 men, wounding and maiming three-score more, some of whom died, and destroyed half a million dollars' worth of property. The Alum Chine and a loading scow alongside were completely annihilated; the tug Atlantic, which twice went to the rescue of imperiled seamen, was set on fre and later sunk; the United States collier Jason, just completed and ready for trial, was raked to her deck and her armor riddled, and buildings in Baltimore and cities and towns many miles away were rocked by the force of the terrifc explosion. The steamer was loading dynamite for the Panama Canal.21 ARCHITECTURE THE YEAR THAT WAS 1913 PETERS
CJA September 2013