by clicking the arrows at the side of the page, or by using the toolbar.
by clicking anywhere on the page.
by dragging the page around when zoomed in.
by clicking anywhere on the page when zoomed in.
web sites or send emails by clicking on hyperlinks.
Email this page to a friend
Search this issue
Index - jump to page or section
Archive - view past issues
Chiropractic Journal of Australia : CJA December 2013
Chiropractic Journal of Australia Volume 43 Number 4 December 2013 143 a series of three winter storms that hit the region in March 1913. Within three days, 8-11 inches of rain fell throughout the Great Miami River watershed on already saturated soil, resulting in more than 90% runoff that caused the river and its tributaries to overfow. The existing series of levees failed, and downtown Dayton experienced fooding up to 20 feet (6.1 m) deep. This food is still the food of record for the Great Miami River watershed, and the amount of water that passed through the river channel during this storm equals the fow over Niagara Falls each month. As the water receded, the damages were assessed in the Dayton area. • More than 360 people died. • Nearly 65,000 people were displaced. • Approximately 20,000 homes were destroyed. • Buildings were moved off their foundations, and debris in the moving water damaged other structures. • Property damage to homes and businesses, including factories and railroads, were over $100,000,000 (in 1913 dollars or over $2,000,000,000 in today's dollars). • Nearly 1,400 horses and 2,000 other domestic animals died.8 That March 1913 flood inundated dozens of Indiana communities along the state’s major rivers, causing widespread destruction. Floodwaters even swamped parts of Indianapolis, destroying bridges over the White River and homes in some of the capital city's neighborhoods.9 The great food of 1 October 1913 inundated all that territory in the town of La Vernia, Texas, from the railroad to the river. People in this low territory were forced to fee to higher ground. No warning of the rising water had been given and people went to sleep on the night of September 30, 1913 without thinking of the small river near by. Many people were awakened on the lower ground by water in their beds. The people came from the fooded ground wading through the water almost over their heads.10 Tornadoes A horrible month for weather-related disasters in the United States culminated with a devastating tornado ripping through Nebraska, near Omaha, on 23 March 1913. It was the worst of fve twisters that struck that day in Nebraska and Iowa, killing 115 people in total. Rain began falling at 5 p.m., southwest of Omaha. Twenty minutes later, the frst tornado touched down in Craig, Nebraska. At 5:30, another twister hit the town of Ithaca and began a 70-mile run through the countryside. In Yutan, a woman was reported to have been carried a full quarter-mile in her home before coming down unharmed. It was the third tornado that did the most damage. It began near Ashland, 65 miles from Omaha. The people of Omaha believed that due to the location of the city, separated from the fatlands of the Nebraska plains, they were protected from tornadoes. On March 23, this belief was proven to be mistaken. The tornado roared and cut through the city for 12 minutes. Witnesses reported seeing houses explode or collapse in seconds. Seven people at the Idlewild Pool Hall were killed when they were struck by a pool table thrown violently into the air. Fires broke out all over the city, forcing the delivery of electricity to be discontinued. Lanterns were needed to guide rescue workers. Fortunately, the heavy rains put out most of the fres. Meanwhile, another twister traveled from Berlin, Nebraska, into Iowa, killing 26 people total in both states. Within two days, heavy snow hit the area, complicating clean-up efforts. Overall, 115 people were killed, hundreds of homes were demolished and millions of dollars in damages were incurred by the tornadoes.11 Tsunamis Before 7 AM on November 26, 1913, tsunamis wrecked the Monterey, California, area including waves 10 to15 feet above the Del Monte wharf.12 Volcanic Eruptions The Colima Volcanic Complex at the western end of the Mexican Volcanic Belt is the most active andesitic volcano in Mexico. The complex consists of a northern, inactive summit cone (Nevado de Colima) and a southern, active cone (Fuego de Colima) which erupted on 20th January 1913. Between 11:30am and 1:00 pm there was a continuous eruption. Ash fell at Saltillo 725 km NNE of the volcano. Colima volcano has been active for about fve million years. There have been frequent historical eruptions from the summit crater. Pyroclastic fows, vertical ash columns and lava fows are characteristic of eruptions at the volcano. About 300,000 people live within 40 km of Colima, making it potentially one of the world's most dangerous volcanoes.13 Ambrym, a Pyroclastic shield volcano located in Vanuatu, erupted on December 6, 1913. Ambrym stands 1,334 m tall. It erupted with a Moderate-Large volcanic explosivity index force. In the blast, 21 people were killed.14 Mining Disasters The Townhead Mine Disaster of 13 March 1913 was probably the most famous occurrence in the history of the Egremont Mines, Cumberland, which although it did not claim as many lives as many other local accidents, did have a unique claim to fame: the length of time men spent trapped underground, and the means of keeping them alive by use of a borehole from the surface through which air and food was supplied. The miners were rescued on the sixth day, with only one casualty.15 The fnal death toll from the Senghenydd mine disaster on 14th October 1913 reached 440 men. Some of the bodies were never recovered. It was the worst mining disaster in the history of the British coalfelds. At ten minutes past eight on the morning of 14 October 1913 the 950 men on the day shift at the Universal Colliery Senghenydd had just began work when a huge explosion ripped through the workings. The blast was so powerful that it sent the two ton cage shooting up the Lancaster Shaft into the headgear. The men working on the east side of the underground workings were all safely brought to the surface, but the west side was a raging inferno from which only a few escaped. By 20 October the death toll had reached 440 including one rescue worker. The subsequent inquiry could not determine the origin of the explosion although it was agreed that methane gas (‘fredamp’) was involved. However, it was apparent that there had been a number of violations of the 1911 Coal Mines Act.16 Maritime Disasters One week after leaving Amsterdam on the voyage to New York a tremendous explosion occurred on 9 October 1913 on THE YEAR THAT WAS 1913 PETERS
CJA September 2013