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Chiropractic Journal of Australia : CJA December 2013
142 Chiropractic Journal of Australia Volume 43 Number 4 December 2013 PROLOGUE Who has not been aware of the devastating foods in Queensland and Northern New South Wales during the early part of the year; the tremendous bush fres in January and February; the unexpected resignation of Pope Benedict XVI; the fasco of a hung parliament; the sabre rattling of the leader of North Korea; the bombing at the Boston marathon; the factory building collapse in Dhaka, Bangladesh, in which more than 1000 workers lost their lives; the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth; the deadly tornado which hit Oklahoma in May. But we are not writing about 2013, we are considering the year 1913, a century ago. THE WORLD IN 1913 DISASTERS Earth Quakes The 1913 Russia Kuril Islands earthquake occurred on January 19 had a magnitude of 7.5. No deaths were recorded.1 An earthquake took place on 27 February 1913 outside of Asmara, Eritrea, with an intensity of 6. The "felt" area extended into Northern Ethiopia as well as Kassala in Sudan. Signifcant damage was done in Asmara, Keren, Massawa and Adi Ugri.2 On 27 November 1913 distinct earthquake shocks were felt along the bay front from Port Melbourne to Cheltenham at about 2 o'clock that after noon. The disturbance evidently began on the previous evening, as earth tremors were felt at Lilydale, Warburton, and Gembrook between 7.50 p.m. and 7.55 p.m. the previous day. Similar shocks were felt at Port Melbourne, Mentone, Black Rock, and Cheltenham between a quarter to 2 and 2 o'clock in the afternoon. Windows rattled, and there were other signs that the earth's crust within a limited area was trembling, but the shocks were not of suffcient severity to cause alarm.3 An earthquake with magnitude 7 took place in the Yunnan Province of China on 21 December 1913. It caused 942 deaths.4 Fires On 22 July 1913 a fre broke out in the Binghamton Clothing Company Building, Binghamton, New York. Due to the hot weather the workers had all doors and windows open. When a fre broke out on the second foor of this 4 storey building the open doors and windows acted as funnels for the smoke and fames, leading to the greatest loss of life on the third and fourth foors, where 31 workers, mainly young women died. The entire building was destroyed in less than 20 minutes.5 Fifty-nine children were killed in the Italian Hall disaster in Calumet, Michigan on 24 Dec 1913. On that fateful day, the striking miners of Calumet, their wives and children, about fve hundred people in all, were gathered in Italian Hall for a holiday party held on the second foor, at the top of a steep stairway. After the festivities had begun, someone yelled Fire! Despite efforts to keep the Hall under control, panic took hold of the crowd. The miners, their wives and children made a mad rush for the stairs. In the ensuing chaos, seventy-four people were crushed and suffocated to death on the stairway of Italian Hall. Fifty-nine of the dead were children. There was no fre.6 Floods Unusually heavy rains fell during the second and third weeks of January, 1913. The mountain streams at the headwaters of the Ohio were fed by the melting of abundant snow and the continued rainfall swept it all into the Ohio with a mighty rush. By leaps the river came up out of its banks and on January 15 reached a height of about sixty-two feet at Lawrenceburg, Ohio.7 The Great Dayton Flood of 1913 fooded Dayton, Ohio, and the surrounding area with water from the Great Miami River, causing the greatest natural disaster in Ohio history. In response, Ohio passed the Vonderheide Act to allow the Ohio state government to form the Miami Conservancy District, one of the frst major food control districts in Ohio and the United States. This also inficted a domino series of events, resulting in a further disruption. The food was created by Canberra Centennial: The Year that was 1913 ROLF E. PETERS ABSTRACT: As in past years this paper documents some of the happenings of a century ago. Perhaps the most memorable event for Australians would be the founding of the nation's capital, Canberra. Other events included the military infux on aviation, loss of lives in earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, mining and maritime disasters, events in architecture, education, human rights, medicine, suffrage and of course events in the feld of chiropractic. INDEX TERMS: (MeSH) CHIROPRACTIC; HISTORY OF MEDICINE, 20TH CENTURY; HISTORICAL ARTICLE. Chiropr J Aust 2013; 43: 142-57. Rolf E. Peters, DC, MCSc, FICC, FACC, FPAC Editor, Chiropractic Journal of Australia Wagga Wagga NSW Australia
CJA September 2013