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Chiropractic Journal of Australia : CJA June 2013
70 Chiropractic Journal of Australia Volume 43 Number 2 June 2013 14. That the clinician’s clinical judgement must also be formerly recognised. "Health outcomes research applies a wide ra nge of methods to identify optimal approaches to determine optimal approaches to determine the effects of healthcare interventions and policies. Critical evaluation skills are necessary to navigate the evidence and identify studies that should infuence clinical decision making and policy. A hierarchical "pyramid of evidence" that emphasizes randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) has been promulgated as the approach to judging study design and quality. Whereas this hierarchy may be suitable for the evaluation of effcacy, it may be inappropriate for many health outcomes research questions." - Ho PM, et al.68 REFERENCES 1. Rubenfeld GD. Understanding why we agree on the evidence but disagree on the medicine. Respir Care. 2001 Dec;46(12):1442-9. 2. Zuiderent-Jerak T, Forland F, Macbeth F. Guidelines should refect all knowledge, not just clinical trials. BMJ 2012;345:e6702. 3. www.nhmrc.gov.au/_fles_nhmrc/publications/attachments/cp94. 4. Eriksen K, Roderic P Rochester RP, Hurwitz EL. Symptomatic reactions, clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction associated with upper cervical chiropractic care: A prospective, multicenter, cohort study. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2011, 12:219 doi:10.1186/1471-2474-12-219. 5. Vuković M, Gvozdenović BS, Gajić T, Stamatović Gajić B, Jakovljević M, McCormick BP. Validation of a patient satisfaction questionnaire in primary health care. Public Health. 2012;126(8):710-8. 6. Budgell BS. The placebo, the sensory trick and chiropractic. Chiropr J Aust 2004;34:58-62. 7. Hawk C, Long CR, Reiter R, Davis CS, Cambron JA, Evans R. Issues in planning a placebo-controlled trial of manual methods: results of a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. 2002;8(1):21-32. 8. Sackett DL. Editorial. Evidence-based medicine. Spine 1998;23(10):1085-6. 9. Pickering W. The negligent treatment of medical anecdote. BMJ 1992;304:1516. 10. Herman J. Anecdote and objectivity. J Clin Epidemiol 1991;44:725- 6. 11. Tonelli MR. The limits of evidence-based medicine. Respir Care. 2001;46:1435-40. 12. Charlton R. Value of anecdotes. Lancet 2000;355(9212):1372. 13. Runciman WB, Hunt TD, Hannaford NA, et al. CareTrack: assessing the appropriateness of health care delivery in Australia. MJA. 2012;197(2):100-5. (Also cited by Cresswell A. Doctors argue over 'recipes'. A controversial study has reopened a dispute over usefulness of clinical guidelines. Weekend Australian.2012:July 21-22.) 14. Perle S. Ethical pragmatic skepticism. Dynam Chiropr. 2003;21(9). www.dynamicchiropractic.com/mpacms/dc/article.php?id=9159. 15. Muñoz RF, Aguilera A, Schueller SM, et al. From Online Randomised Controlled Trials to Participant Preference Studies. J Medical Internet Research. 2012;14(3):e64. [Citing: Institute of Medicine. 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Rafael Campo; “Anecdotal Evidence: Why Narratives Matter to Medical Practice" http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender. fcgi?artid=1621095. 22. http://ww.meriam-webster.com/dictionary/anecdotal. 23. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anecdotal_evidence. 24. Haneline MT. Evidence-Based Chiropractic Practice. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2007, p 7. (Cited by Kent C. Evidenced- based practice and chiropractic. http://chiroeco.com/news/print-this. php?id=7429. 25. Wood L, Egger M, Gluud LL, et al. Empirical evidence of bias in treatment effect estimates in controlled trials with different interventions and outcomes: meta-epidemiological study. BMJ 2008;336(7644):601-5. 26. Schulz KF, Chalmers I, Hayes RJ, Altman DG. Empirical Evidence of Bias: Dimensions of Methodological Quality Associated With Estimates of Treatment Effects in Controlled Trials. JAMA. 1995 Feb 1;273(5):408-12. 27. Victora CG, Habicht J-P, Bryce J, Evidence-based public health: Moving beyond randomised trials. Am J Public Health 2004;94(3):400- 5. 28. Begley S. Some treatments just don’t work, but doctors use them anyway. Newsweek. 2009;Oct 7. 29. Kulkarni AV. The challenges of evidence-based m edicine: a philosophical perspective. Med Health Care Philos. 2005;8(2):255- 60. 30. Rosner AL. Evidence-based medicine: revisiting the pyramid of priorities. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2012 Jan;16(1):42-9. Epub 2011 Jun 24. 31. Borgerson K. Evidence-based alternative medicine? Perspect Biol Med. 2005 Autumn;48(4):502-15. (Department of Philosophy, University of Toronto, ON, Canada.) 32. Hawk C, Long CR, Rowell RM, Gudavalli MR, Jedlicka J. A randomized trial investigating a chiropractic manual placebo: A novel design using standardized forces in the delivery of active and control treatments. J Altern Complement Med. 2005;11(1):109-17. 33. Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine - Levels of Evidence (March 2009) www.cebm.net/. 34. www.health.qld.gov.au/healthpact/docs/gen.../lvl-of-evidence.pdf. 35. www.tga.gov.au/pdf/cm-evidence-claims.pdf. 36. “Images of Pyramid of Evidence” See Google.com.au. 37. Sackett DL, Rosenberg MC, Gray JA, Haynes RB, Richardson WS. Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn't. BMJ. 1996;312: 71-2.(Penn State University.) 38. Hawk C. In Gatterman MI. Whiplash: A patient-centered approach to management. St Louis:Elsevier Mosby;2012:ix. 39. Dandona S, Roberts R. Personalized cardiovascular medicine: Status in 2012. Can J Cardiol. 2012 Oct 2. pii: S0828-282X(12)01271-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cjca.2012.08.020. 40. Luxford K. What does the patient know about quality. Int J Qual Health Care. 2012;24(5):439-40. 41. Manchikanti L, Datta S, Smith HS, Hirsch JA. Evidence-based medicine, systematic reviews, and guidelines in interventional pain management: part 6. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies. Pain Physician. 2009;12(5):819-50. PATIENT-ORIENTED EBP ROME
CJA March 2013
CJA September 2013