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Chiropractic Journal of Australia : CJA March 2013
20 Chiropractic Journal of Australia Volume 43 Number 1 March 2013 and… stuff themselves like cattle.’ He posited that although nature is diffcult to understand, the best way to approach life is by thinking correctly, seeking wisdom, speaking the truth and paying attention to and living in accordance with nature. Although it may not appear to be so, all things are connected and one, and the only constant is change. Even something as powerful as the sun cannot overstep its boundaries without being found out and paying a price.9 In these thoughts we can detect the concepts of universal intelligence, wholism, and the need for balance and harmony that echoed in the writings of DD Palmer and also in some concepts of ancient Chinese philosophy. These are in contrast to many principles of modern Western medicine. Parmenides of Elea (born c. 515 BC) agreed with Heraclitus that the opinions of mortals were generally unreliable, but with little else from his predecessor. The Elean believed that nothing changed, and that this and truth could be known by 'true conviction.'10 Thus, as in the belief system of modern Western science, the truth about things could be truly known. Classical Greek thought on health came to be divided into two main schools. These continue to have immense infuence on the ways we approach matters of health and disease today. Their origin lies in the most prominent pre-Hellenic healing deity Hygieia, who symbolised health and represented the concept that those who lived wisely and in moderation would maintain their health.11 Religious and societal trends eventually led to goddesses such as she being repositioned as relatives of more powerful males, and she was demoted to being the daughter of the hero and main healing god Asklepios.12 Today her approach might be called hygiene, health promotion, disease prevention, or wellness lifestyle. Palmer wrote, 'chiropractic will be valued for its preventative qualities, as much as for relieving the cause of ailments.'13 Hygieia's mythical sister was Panakeia, which meant 'All-Healer', and who represented the knowledge and use of remedies.14 Today this approach might be known as allopathic therapy against disease, and it continues to be the most common approach to the treatment of disease in the Western world. These concepts developed into the two main schools of thought, one based on the Greek island city state of Kos and the other at Knidus. THE KOAN MODEL The writings of the Koan teachers are known as the Hippocratic Corpus. They included a focus on well- being, on the person (rather than on the disease), and on the importance of physical observation and examination, including understanding of the person's lifestyle, behaviour and emotional state. The naming of the disease -- diagnosis -- was not of great importance. Disease was seen as a natural process, resulting from being out of balance with natural life habits, rather than as punishment from the gods or invasion by agents external to the body. Maintenance of health and recovery from disease were understood to come from being in balance with nature (physis) and from life habits that supported the life force. The role of the physician was to guide the person back to balance with nature, so the life force could return her to health, via vis medicatrix naturae. This conservative approach involved relatively few remedies, as excessive intervention into matters of nature would be considered hybris on the part of the physician.15,16 This is congruent with Palmer's view of the origins of health, as his 1910 book included the following from Colville: ‘Dame Nature is benefcent, her laws are wise and true. To learn and then obey them is all we have to do. And when we wisely work and plan the better way to learn No illness will exist, because its only when we turn away from nature's guidance we into error stray; This is the only reason that you are ill today.'17 It also seems to be in accord with chiropractic philosopher RW Stephenson's view, as he wrote that, 'chiropractic is a philosophy, science and art of things natural …’18 THE KNIDIAN MODEL In contrast, the Knidian model stressed a focus on the disease rather than on the person, and elaborate diagnosis based on symptoms. Diseases were believed to be entities or external forces that became situated in body parts. Accordingly, treatment was directed against the invading disease rather than at supporting the life force. Remedies were more commonly used.15 Of this approach, Palmer wrote: ‘The whole object was to fnd an antidote, a specifc for each and every ailment which could and would drive out the intruder, as though the disorder was a creature of intelligence.'19 In contemporary terms, the Koan model could accurately be described as 'healthcare.' On the other hand, the Knidian model is refected in the philosophical model of what is commonly and erroneously termed 'healthcare', but should more accurately be called 'disease and injury treatment.' I will now trace the development of this model. REBIRTH In 1453 AD an event occurred as a result of long-term historical trends and which had enormous impacts on many aspects of Western life in the following centuries. In 312 AD the Roman emperor Constantine had converted to Christianity, and in 330 he moved his imperial capital east from Rome to Byzantium, which he re-named Constantinople. That city is now known as Istanbul, in Turkey. In 476 the Roman Empire in the west fnally disintegrated and Europe entered the Dark Ages. Many scholars from the western part of the Empire had been gradually seeking safety by moving to Constantinople before that collapse. Then, nearly a thousand years later, the encroachment on Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks had led to a reversal in the movement of Greek and Latin manuscripts and those who studied and taught them back to what is today called Western Europe, particularly to the northern Italian city-states.20 This trend, which concluded with the fall of the city and the end of the remnants of the Eastern Roman Empire in 1453, contributed to a Renaissance of interest in and learning of the classics and the accelerated development of thought and knowledge in many areas, including science and health. Galileo (1564- 1642), infuenced by the ancient Greek atomism of Leucippus and Democritus, and the empirical materialism of Aristotle (384-322 BC), had sought to understand the movements of MECHANIC OR GARDENER RICHARDS
CJA December 2012
CJA June 2013