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Chiropractic Journal of Australia : CJA December 2012
Chiropractic Journal of Australia Volume 42 Number 4 December 2012 147 Munich-born German explorer Wilhelm Filchner penetrated the Antarctic ice pack of the Weddell Sea at 77º50' South early in the year aboard his ship Deutschland. He charted what he called the Luitpold Coast between 29 and 37º West (naming it for Bavaria's prince regent). His ship became trapped in the pack ice in March, and drifted with it until 26 November, when it became free.1 FOOD New York's state legislature banned the sale of oysters in state restaurants and fsh houses from 15 May through 31 August as a conservation measure. The idea that it is safe to eat to eat oysters only in “R” months was based solely on the lack of refrigeration to keep shellfsh from spoiling in warm weather. Oysters from New York waters continued to be shipped to buyers in states where the myth was disregarded.1 Tokyo University agricultural chemist Umetaro Susuki extracted an antiberiberi compound from rice hulls.1 Casimir Funk's publication, die Vitamine, suggested that beriberi, rickets, pellagra and sprue may all be caused by “vitamine” defciencies.1 University Of Wisconsin biochemist E.V.McCollum and his colleague Marguerite Davis discovered in butter and egg yolks the fat-soluble nutrient that was later called vitamin A.1 On the 13th of July 1912 the frst water was “Turned on” at Yanco, N.S.W. It was the beginning of the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area, one of Australia's major food production areas.20. HUMAN RIGHTS The African National Congress had its beginning in the South African Native National Congress founded on 8 January at Bloemfontein, where Xhosa, Zulu and other tribal chiefs had gathered with heads of religious groups to protect the rights of native peoples from encroachment by whites.1 Italians gained almost universal male suffrage under legislation adopted 29 June. The measure also provided that salaries be paid to members of Parliament. Italy's lower house of Parliament voted 209 to 48 against giving women the right to vote.1 MEDICAL SCIENCE (?) The Sherley Amendment to the U.S. Pure Food and Drug Law of 1906 prohibited farfetched declaration of therapeutic or curative effects. Chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations Swager Sherley sponsored the amendment, enacted 23 August 1912. It required that the patent medicine Cuforhedake Brane-Fue be labelled 30% alcohol, brought therapeutic claims within the jurisdiction of the 1906 law, but required that the Bureau of Food and Drugs prove claims to be false and fraudulent before they can be judged illegal. Promoters pushed cocaine as a cure for hay fever, sinusitis, and alcohol and opium abuse. Patent medicines containing opium and its derivatives remained freely available, as did hypodermic needles, and many physicians continued to prescribe heroin as a treatment for morphine addiction even though heroin addiction was more deadly.1 On Christmas Eve, 24 December 1912, Merck filed patent applications in Germany for the synthesis of the drug MDMA, developed by Anton Köllisch.13 This drug was introduced in Europe as a potential appetite suppressant which had euphoria-producing psychedelic effects. Today it has come into widespread, though illegal use under the name of Exstasy.1 On a more positive note: the publication of The Pituitary Body and Its Disorders by Boston surgeon Harvey Cushing advanced knowledge of the pituitary gland and its relation to diabetes.1 The frst diagnosis of a heart attack in a living patient appeared in the 7 December 1912 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association. Chicago physician James B. Herrick pointed out that what may seem to be acute indigestion, food poisoning, angina pectoris, or something else may in fact be due to a blood clot in the coronary artery, which is what generally destroys a segment of the heart muscle to produce a myocardial infarction, considered until then merely a curiosity seen on autopsy as an inevitable consequence of aging. Herrick's patient (a 55-year-old banker) had survived only 52 hours, but Herrick showed that heart attacks need not be fatal. He further showed that clots generally occur in coronary arteries damaged by arteriosclerosis or atherosclerosis, but heart disease remained a relatively minor cause of death among Americans as compared with tuberculosis and pneumonia.1 Today heart disease kills almost 600,000 people a year in the USA (http:// www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/lcod.htm) while deaths from pneumonia are only about 53,000, and tuberculosis is largely eradicated. (http://www.cdc.gov/tb/) The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1912 was awarded to Alexis Carrel “in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs." 21 POLITICAL EVENTS Argentina's oligarchical legislature established universal and compulsory male suffrage beginning at the age of 18 with a secret ballot under legislation passed at the insistence of Radical Party leader Hipólito Irigoyen, who had gained support from President Rogue Sáenz Peña.1 Vissariovich Dzhugashvili took the alias “Stalin” from the Russian word “stal” (steel). Between 1902 and 1912 Stalin had been arrested many times, but escaped repeatedly to continue working as a Bolshevik organiser. To obtain funds for the Bolsheviks, he staged a number of robberies. Lenin rewarded Stalin by naming him to the Bolshevik Central Committee. From there, Stalin rapidly gained infuence and power among the Bolsheviks.22 China became a republic on 1 January 1912. Sun Yat- sen became provisional president. The boy emperor Pu Yi abdicated on 12 February but was given a pension and a summer palace near Beijing and was permitted to live in the Forbidden City.1 New Mexico became the 47th state on 6 January and Arizona entered on 14 February as the 48th state of the United States.1 THE YEAR THAT WAS 1912 PETERS
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