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Chiropractic Journal of Australia : CJA December 2012
146 Chiropractic Journal of Australia Volume 42 Number 4 December 2012 The conversion of the ex-torpedo boat tender Foudre into the French Navy’s frst ship capable of carrying and handling airplanes was completed in March 1912. In her new role, Foudre was the frst ship with an airplane hangar. She was also the frst warship to be permanently altered for service as an aviation ship.15 On 9 May 1912 William Hart was fned £25 in Sydney for causing a herd of cattle to stampede by fying over them and on 2 June a machine gun was fred from an airplane for the very frst time.16 COMMERCE A minimum wage law for women and children enacted by the Massachusetts legislature was the frst state law of its kind. Liberty Mutual Insurance Company was founded at Boston to write workers' compensation policies in Massachusetts.1 Kalamazoo, Mich., corset makers went on strike against a company they charged with immoral behaviour. One striker said, “The girls are compelled to pay for their own thread, and this is quite an item. It was a common practice for foremen to forget to charge them for the thread for several days and then to suggest a way in which these girls may repay them for this kindness.” Police arrested the striking women.1 Lawrence, Mass., woollen mills had a bitter strike beginning in January as women joined with men in smashing machines. Anarchists Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman had helped organised the strike by women employees, who worked the same hours as men but for less pay and did housework in addition. The strikers carried banners with the slogan “We want bread and roses too.” 1 The U.S. Congress extended the 8-hour day to all federal employees while in private industries most workers laboured 10 to 12 hours per day for 6 days a week.1 The Japanese newspaper Manchoho Shimbun published a letter on 8 June 1912 addressed to the president of a large textile company complaining about having to work 12-hour days. Japan's economy was dependent on textile exports and textile factories depended on cheap labour.1 COMMUNICATION The wireless message “SS Titanic RAN INTO ICEBERG. SINKING FAST” was picked up accidentally by Russian- born wireless operator David Sarnoff who later said that he was manning a station set up by John Wanamaker in his New York store window, supposedly to keeping touch with the Philadelphia Wanamaker's but actually as a publicity stunt. Sarnoff relayed the message to another steamer whose radio operator reported that the liner had sunk but that some survivors had been picked up.1 Pravda began publication on 5 May 1912 to voice the ideas of Russia's underground Communist Party with Vyacheslav Molotov as editor. V.L. Lenin used the Russian word for truth , and while Pravda would publish only one version of the truth, the newspaper's circulation grew to become the world's largest.1 The SOS in Morse code---three dots, three dashes, three dots---gained acceptance as a universal distress signal, replacing the previous CDQ signal.1 A new U.S. postal regulation required that all advertising in the media had to be labelled “advt.” 1 The Radio Act of 1912---a United States federal law--- mandated that all radio stations in the U.S. had to be licensed by the federal government and also mandating that all seagoing vessels continuously monitor distress frequencies.17 EDUCATION The huge task of bringing secondary education to all Queensland children was fnally tackled in 1912. The State undertook to establish a free high school in places with a likely attendance of 25 qualifed students, provided that there was no other provision for State-aided secondary education (such as grammar schools) in these places. High schools were opened in six centres -- Charters Towers, Gympie, Mt Morgan, Warwick, Bundaberg and Mackay, while secondary departments were attached to the primary schools at Heberton, Gatton and Childers.18 A century later a university-based chiropractic education program opened in Mackay at the Central Queensland University. Educational institutions established in 1912, or older institutions which were re-founded in 1912 in Australia included: Bairnsdale Secondary College; Benalla College; De La Salle College, Malvern; North Sydney Boys High School; Northern Melbourne Institute of TAFE; Orange High School and Wagga Wagga High School.19 The Montessori Method by educator Maria Montessori described her success at teaching slum children between the ages of 3 and 6 to read. In 1912 she started a movement of Montessori schools for teachers and the frst U.S. Montessori school opened at Tarrytown, N.Y.1 Rice University was founded under the name of Rice Institute with a bequest from the late Texas merchant William Marsh Rice.1 ENVIRONMENT Japanese cherry trees given to the United States as a goodwill gesture were destroyed when found to be infected with insects and the disease chestnut blight. Yukio Ozaki, a member of the Diet since its formation in 1890 had donated 2000 of these trees three years earlier in gratitude for the U.S. mediation in the Russo-Japanese War. Vicecountess Chinda, wife of the Japanese ambassador, joined with First Lady Helen Taft on 27 March in planting two of the 3,020 Yoshino cherry trees on the northern bank of the Potomac River Tidal Basin, where the trees blossom each spring to make the Tidal Basin a perennial Tourist attraction.1 EXPLORATION British explorer Robert Falcon Scott and his men reached the South Pole on 17 January 1912 and found Roald Amundsen’s fag there. Scott had planned his expedition less carefully than Amundsen, relying on Siberian ponies, rather than dogs, and the ponies had to be shot to provide food, with each man pushing a sledge whose load averaged 190 pounds. The daily ration of 4,800 calories was inadequate and the entire party starved to death.1 THE YEAR THAT WAS 1912 PETERS
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