by clicking the arrows at the side of the page, or by using the toolbar.
by clicking anywhere on the page.
by dragging the page around when zoomed in.
by clicking anywhere on the page when zoomed in.
web sites or send emails by clicking on hyperlinks.
Email this page to a friend
Search this issue
Index - jump to page or section
Archive - view past issues
Chiropractic Journal of Australia : CJA March 2012
4 Chiropractic Journal of Australia Volume 42 Number 1 March 2012 for the commencement of the stork test and the dependent variables being the two observation methods. The methods of volunteer recruitment and data collection have been detailed previously.3 All data were collected under the same conditions and involved video recording that was later reviewed on a computer screen with horizontal lines placed on the screen (reference lines) in order to assess vertical direction of change relative to the baseline thumb positions. Seventy-four adult volunteers, consisting of 19 men aged 49.8 ± 16.3 years (median 51 years) and 55 women aged 50.8 ± 13 years (median 51 years) took part. The University of Technology Sydney Ethics Committee approved the study and subjects gave informed consent. The two stances for commencement of the test were: Stance t: two feet close together, but not touching (Figure 2) Stance o: two feet close together, but standing on one foot with the ball of the other foot resting on the foor (Figure 3) The only difference between the two stances (t and o) was that Stance o had most of the weight transferred to one leg and the toes of the lifting leg resting on the foor. Each subject was similarly briefed about the two starting positions and the video process. They were instructed to lift to 90º of hip-fexion with 90º of knee-fexion and return to the starting position. The order of the two stances for individual subjects was selected by drawing a card, which listed the two stances in different order, and this was changed every six subjects. In addition, the weight bearing leg used for the commencement of the test was changed at the commencement of each video session (usually 13 to 16 subjects per session). Each test was performed once on each side for each stance. OM1 observed movement of the thumb on the PSIS for Stances t and o measured against the reference lines. A negative result was recorded if there was no movement of the PSIS thumb or it moved in a caudal direction. A positive result was recorded if the PSIS thumb moved cephalad. (Figure 4) • the PSIS thumb did not move or it moved in a caudal direction while the S2 thumb did not move • the S2 and PSIS thumbs moved cephalad together A positive result was recorded if: • the PSIS thumb moved cephalad without the S2 thumb moving • the S2 thumb moved in a caudal direction while the PSIS thumb did not move or it moved in cephalad direction Statistical analyses using SPSS 16 included: • Kappa tests for measure of agreement between the two stances, and the two observation methods • McNemar-Bowker test of symmetry in the distribution of result changes between the two stances, and the two observation methods As most subjects were females in the 41 -- 60 age group, it was not possible to conduct a meaningful statistical analysis with respect to age group or gender. RESULTS There were four possible results for each of the two stances: a pair of negative results, a pair of positive results and either positive or negative on the left with negative or positive on the right. Results for the two stances and two observational methods are summarised in Table 1. Results demonstrated poor agreement between the two stances (κ = 0.087) when OM1 was used; and there was a signifcant difference in result changes between the stances (McNemar-Bowker test p < 0.0001). Of the 41 subjects who had a change in result, 34 changed from a negative result on one or both sides from Stance t to a positive result on one or both sides from Stance o and four subjects showed the reverse pattern. Three subjects who were positive on one side from Stance t changed to negative on that side with the other side changing to positive from Stance o. (Table 2) Agreement was poor between the stances (κ = 0.127) when OM2 was used; and there was a signifcant difference OBSERVATION METHODS STORK TEST CURNOW • COBBIN • WYNDHAM Figure 4. Observation Method 1: A positive result if the thumb on the posterior superior iliac spine moved cephalad on the lift OM2 observed the distance between the thumbs and observed movement of both thumbs relative to the reference lines for Stances t and o . A negative result was recorded if the distance between the thumbs stayed the same or decreased and this happened when: Figure 5. Observation Method 2: A positive result if there was an increase in the distance between the thumb on the posterior superior iliac spine and the thumb on the second sacral spinous process on the lift
CJA June 2012