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Chiropractic Journal of Australia : December 2011
Chiropractic Journal of Australia Volume 41 Number 4 December 2011 143 THE YEAR THAT WAS 1911 PETERS The Offcial Secrets Act passed by Parliament August 22 made it a criminal offense to publish any offcial government information without permission. Home Secretary Winston Churchill pushed through the measure, which permitted the government to open the mail of suspected German espionage agents.3 Joseph Pulitzer, who published the newspaper New York World, died at Charleston, S.C., October 29 at age 64. His will provided for the endowment of a Columbia School of Journalism and for Pulitzer prizes.3 EDUCATION The Carnegie Corporation of New York was created with a $125 million gift from Andrew Carnegie and had as its mission encouragement of education. Fewer than 5 out of 100 Americans went to college after reaching age 18 and the percentage among women was even lower.3 Sears, Roebuck president Julius Rosenwald said, "As an American and as a Jew, I appeal to all high-minded men and women to join in a relentless crusade against race prejudice, indulgence in which will result in the blotting out of the highest ideals of our nation." In many of the Southern states, half of all blacks were illiterate (the literacy rate among whites was four to fve times higher), twice as much money was spent to educate whites as blacks, the school year for blacks was often as short as 3 months, teachers in black schools were often uneducated themselves, and school buildings for blacks were dilapidated. Rosenwald started working with Booker T. Washington to build schools for black pupils in Alabama.3 ENVIRONMENT The Appalachian-White Forest Reservation Act (Weeks Act) signed into law by President Taft March 1 authorised the federal government to purchase up to 75 million acres of land to protect watersheds from development and fre. Congress had passed the measure in response to the previous year's devastating forest fres in the northern Rockies; to appropriate funds to control the sources of important streams in the White Mountains and southern Appalachians.3 Roosevelt Dam on the Salt River in Arizona Territory was completed by the Bureau of Reclamation as part of the frst large-scale irrigation project. The 284-foot high rubble masonry arch had a crest length of 1,125 feet, created a reservoir with a capacity of 1.64 million acre-feet, and made the Phoenix area a rich source of fruits and vegetables.3 FOOD Crisco was introduced August 15 by Procter & Gamble Co. of Cincinnati; made from linseed oil. It was the frst solid hydrogenated vegetable shortening. P&G promoted the product with advertisements calling it “a Scientifc Discovery Which Will Affect Every Kitchen in America," but found that women who had been taught to cook with butter and lard were reluctant to accept free one-and-a-half-pound cans of the product. The company issued a pamphlet in Yiddish after fnding that its biggest users initially were Orthodox Jews, who were delighted to have a shortening that contained neither lard nor butter and could thus be used at any meal without violating kosher dietary laws, but Crisco did not enjoy much commercial success until wartime shortages of lard developed later in this decade.3 HUMAN RIGHTS China's political and social revolution was the beginning of the decline in selling young women into matrimony and binding girls' feet in childhood, a practice that had been popular in much of the country since the 16th century. All toes except the big toe of girls aged four to six, sometimes younger, were bent under the foot and pulled back toward the heel by binding them so tightly that toes putrefed and sometimes even dropped off. The foot was painful for a year, until it withered into a stump, making walking diffcult without assistance. Often a foot was broken or permanently crippled, and once maimed it could not be unbound without great pain. Especially in northern China, where fewer women were needed to work in the rice felds, girls’ feet were subjected to the painful deformation partly to symbolize women's dependence on men, partly to signify a family's wealth and status, although many poor families bound their daughters' feet in hopes that it would make the girls more attractive to rich suitors, and partly because men found the gait of women taking tiny, delicate steps on "lily feet" erotic, somewhat like the gait of Western women wearing high heels. To touch such a foot was, for a Chinese man, comparable to touching a woman's breast in Western society.23 Missouri became the frst state to provide public aid to mothers of dependent children; 18 states had aid-to-mothers statutes by 1913, but strict eligibility standards and the fact that few eligible women applied for assistance made the laws applicable to only a small percentage of needy mothers.4 Munich police started fngerprinting gypsies (Roma) for the Central Offce for Gypsy Affairs that was established in 1899. Other German states supplied names and photographs, and by 1925 more than 14,000 names had been collected as the states and municipalities adopt measures to combat gypsies, travelers, and vagrants.3 POLITICAL EVENTS On 1 January 1911, a decade after federation, the Northern Territory was separated from South Australia and transferred to Commonwealth control. Alfred Deakin opined at that time "To me the question has been not so much commercial as national, frst, second, third and last. Either we must accomplish the peopling of the northern territory or submit to its transfer to some other nation." 24 In February 1911 a revolution began in China that ended the 267-year-old Qing dynasty of the Manchus, propelled China into the 20th century, and started the decline of such customs as having men wear humiliating pigtails and having women's feet painfully deformed by binding them. China was proclaimed a republic in February, revolution broke out in October, unrest spread through the country, young women left a mission school to form a regiment, women went into battle at their own initiative, wearing men's clothes, and threw homemade bombs on Nanjing from a hill above the city, but bloodshed overall was minimal. Chinese revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen, then 45, returned from 16 years of exile in Hawaii, England, and the United States. He was the frst graduate of Hong Kong's new College of Medicine, Sun was elected president of the United Provinces of China December 29 by a revolutionary provisional assembly at Nanjing, and industrialist Zhang Jian (Chang Chien), then 58, served as minister of agriculture and commerce.25
CJA March 2012