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Chiropractic Journal of Australia : December 2011
142 Chiropractic Journal of Australia Volume 41 Number 4 December 2011 in the 194mm magazines, which quickly spread to the rest of the ship, in spite of the efforts of the crew and attempts at fooding the magazines. At 5:53 pm, the main magazines detonated, destroying the ship and killing 200 of her crew. People on the neighbouring ships and in the port were also killed and maimed, yielding a total count of around 300 killed. Armour plate weighing 10 tonnes from the Liberté lodged in the side of the République, 300 metres away.18 Rail Disasters The “Offcial Yearbook of the Commonwealth of Australia No 33-1940" published by the Australian Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics states on page 663 in a Table of State Railways -- Total Number of Persons killed during 1911-12, that 196 persons were killed and 1,453 were injured in the various States of Australia. No other specifcs were listed. Aviation On 18 January 1911 a 60-horsepower Glenn H. Curtiss plane fown by civilian pilot Eugene Ely landed on a specially rigged deck platform aboard the U.S. Navy's armored cruiser Pennsylvania. Ropes attached to sandbags acting as brakes arrested the plane's speed.19 On 17 February Glenn Curtiss few a prototype seaplane out to the United States Navy armored cruiser Pennsylvania in the harbor of San Diego, California. The Pennsylvania hoisted the seaplane aboard, then returned it to the water, and Curtiss few it back to shore. It was the frst demonstration that a ship can handle a seaplane.20 In March the Spanish Air Force was created as the Aeronáutica Militar Española, with four aircraft.20 and on 1 April the frst fying unit of the British military, the Air Battalion Royal Engineers, was formed.20 On 29 August Hilda Hewlett became the frst British woman to receive a pilot's license while Harriet Quimby and Matilde Moisant became the frst licensed female pilots in the United States.20 The frst aircraft to be used in war, an Italian Army Blériot XI, few from Tripoli to Azizia to spy on Turkish positions on 22 October and Second Lieutenant Giulio Gavotti of the Italian Air Flotilla dropped several small bombs on Turkish troops during the Italo-Turkish War 1-2 November. This was the frst time bombs had been dropped from an aeroplane in war.20 The French Navy selected the torpedo boat tender Foudre for conversion into France’s frst ship capable of carrying and handling airplanes. She became the frst warship to be permanently altered for use as an aviation ship.20 Swabian-born coppersmith's son Ernst (Heinrich) Heinkel, 23, built his frst biplane. He saw a Zeppelin dirigible explode in fames near a landing feld at Stuttgart 3 years earlier, visited the International Flying Exhibition at Frankfurt a year later, saw the advances being made by French and Belgian designers, and determined to design his own aircraft, but his frst plane crashed and burned.3 Commerce The book Motion Study by Fairfeld, Me. born engineer Frank B. (Bunker) Gilbreth, 43, and his Oakland, Calif. born wife, Lillian, 33, was based on a systematic investigation and analysis of workers' motions and the amount of time it took for a worker to carry out a specifc task. The couple applied social sciences to industrial management, with emphasis on the worker rather than on non-human factors.4 International Business Machines Co. (IBM) had its beginnings in the holding company Computing-Tabulating Recording Co. (C-T-R) created at Elmira, NY, by Charles R. Flint through a consolidation of the 11-year-old International Time Recording Co., the 10-year-old Computing Scale Co. of America, the 4-year-old Day Time Register Co. and the 3-year-old Syracuse Time Recording Co., all of which made time clocks for factories and offces.4 The 1911 disturbances started on Sunday, 13 August when a demonstration was called in support of a seamen's strike. Forty-thousand were expected at the demonstration, but an estimated 100,000 turned up to listen to 40 speakers on four separate platforms. Scuffles broke out between protesters and police and within minutes fghting had begun, involving hundreds of people. The police attacked the crowd quite unnecessarily, many people were injured, many people were arrested, 186 people were hospitalised, and 96 people arrested. This created a tremendous outcry in the city. Two days and nights of rioting followed with troops on the streets, there were 3,500 troops stationed in Liverpool and a gunboat on the river. In 1911 it was customary for The Riot Act, which could declare gatherings of 12 or more people unlawful, to be read aloud to crowds. At St George's Plateau, the local stipendiary magistrate, Stuart Deacon, stood at the base of the Wellington Monument to read the act. Mounted police, charged the crowd while police on foot chased protesters across St George's Plateau and along neighbouring streets. By the following morning 96 people, many bandaged and bearing the scars of the riots, were appearing in courts charged with a variety of offences. On 15 August, prison vans containing 90 of those convicted for involvement in the riots were attacked as they made their way down Vauxhall Road to Walton Jail. The convoy was being escorted by 32 men from the cavalry unit the 18th Hussars, yet bottles and bricks were thrown at the soldiers and rioters grabbed the reins of the horses. The Hussars opened fre on the crowd and two men were killed. A general strike was called. Fifty-thousand troops were mobilised to break the strike, however no trains were running due to the strike and the troops could not be moved to problem areas. The strike lasted until 24 August.21,22 COMMUNICATION Olivetti Co. was founded at Ivrea west of Milan in the Piedmont by electrical engineer Camillo Olivetti, 43, who had designed and built the frst Italian typewriter. Few Italian frms had accepted steel-nibbed pens, much less typewriters, but by year's end Olivetti had received an order for 100 machines from the Italian Navy, and by 1933 his plant was producing 24,000 machines per year. The company sold its typewriters in 22 foreign countries, but most were sold through Olivetti retail shops in Italy.3 The Daily Herald started publication at London January 25 with salacious material that made it the frst paper to sell 2 million copies, and the London Observer that began publication in 1791 was acquired by John Jacob Astor, grandson of Viscount Astor of Hever Castle.3 THE YEAR THAT WAS 1911 PETERS
CJA March 2012