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Chiropractic Journal of Australia : December 2011
Chiropractic Journal of Australia Volume 41 Number 4 December 2011 123 The history of the development of chiropractic in Australia has been classifed into fve discrete periods. They are: 1. The Dawn Period (1905-1919) 2. The Establishment Period (1919-1945) 3. The Statutory Recognition Period (1945-1961) 4. The Legislative Period (1961-1885) 5. The Functional Integration Period (1985- ) Now Dr Donald McDowall, a Canberra chiropractor, in a personal letter, suggests a further new period might be added to those above that he names "The Validation Period". As can be seen, specifc opening and closing years have been chosen to identify all of the periods listed above with the exception of the Functional Integration Period. While specifc opening and closing years of any period are somewhat arbitrary, they nevertheless represent signifcantly identifable stages in the historical evolution of chiropractic in Australia. The author's original 1988 paper classifying Australian chiropractic historical periods identifed only four such periods that commenced with the Establishment Period and concluded with the Functional Integration Period.1 It was not until 2005 that classifcation periods were expanded to fve to commence with the “Dawn Period”; noted in a section of a paper published in the United States subtitled "History -- a Summary Review." 2 When the initial paper was put together in 1988, there was little published about Australian early-day chiropractors. It was not until 1995 that the history of some early chiropractors in Australia commenced to emerge. Chiropractic -- an Illustrated History, published in the United States, incorporated some mention of early chiropractors in Australia.3 Two years later Dr Graham Hunt published the remarkable story of Australia's First Lady of Chiropractic wherein Barbara Brake sought health through chiropractic, and told of her training at Palmer School of Chiropractic and her subsequent short practice period in Melbourne, Victoria.4,5 By 2004, in a detailed study, Dr Rolf Peters recorded searching histories of Australian mainstream chiropractors in a Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) University MCSc thesis.6 In addition, it should be noted that the frst graduates of the School of Chiropractic at Melbourne's Phillip Institute of Technology (PIT) were documented from May 1979 until 1987. PIT later amalgamated with the RMIT University. The concluding "Functional Integration Period" left time open-ended in the author’s original 1988 classifcation paper. As such, it was presented at the World Federation of Chiropractic (WFC) Congress held in Sydney in June 2005.8 Detailing again the above fve developmental periods and adding additional chiropractic achievements, a subsequent paper was published fve years later.9 Readers will have recognised the rationale for the open- ended concluding time period of the "Functional Integration Period," since the history of chiropractic in Australia is still running a lively course and, happily, has not yet gone the way of the dinosaurs - widely interesting but a bygone age. This is despite relentless efforts of political medicine to combat the rise and infuence of chiropractic by debunking its theory; claiming manipulation redundancy; and outright scientifc attack, which it continues to do.10 A recent special WFC report on successful prosecutions of chiropractors in South Korea by the Korean Medical Association and the Oriental Medical Doctors Association has also effectively reduced membership of qualified chiropractors in the Korean Chiropractors Association from 60 to 17 members, and is a contemporary example of medically organised opposition to the development of chiropractic in Asia.11 It is essential that both practicing chiropractors and the profession as a whole worldwide should continue to vigorously project the unique role of chiropractic and the role of the chiropractor within the healthcare community into the future, as it has in the past. This has not only preserved chiropractic identity but has also maintained its integrity. The role of the chiropractor has been publicly and succinctly noted by Dr Peter Baume, onetime medical practitioner; Professor of Community Medicine at the University of New South Wales; and Chancellor of the Australian National University, Canberra, in his book entitled "The Tasks of Medicine: An Ideology of Care", where he writes: Integration of Chiropractic into Healthcare Services -- An Historical Note Update STANLEY P BOLTON Stanley P Bolton Associate Editor, History Sydney, NSW, Australia Received; 18 August 2011, accepted with revisions: 15 October 2011
CJA March 2012